A Karamanli grave in Istanbul. The Karamanlides were a Turkish-speaking, Orthodox population from central Anatolia. The grave is in Turkish, but written using Greek letters
In the Balkans and Anatolia, Gagauz, Karamanids are Orthodox Christians communities have succeeded in preserving their language, Turkish. The people of Karaman had to immigrate to Greece in accordance with the “contract on the exchange of Turkish and Greek people and the protocol attached to it” signed in 1923. Thousands of books, inscriptions and tombstones written in Turkish with the Greek alphabet have survived from them (Güngör, 2002, C.3:278).
The tombstone of a Karamanlides, once a Turkish-speaking Orthodox minority in Anatolia, written in the Greek alphabet using the Turkish language.