In India , from geographies other than Turkey and Turkistan, the Turkish Mughal Empire in India raised Islam to a rich civilization level in the subcontinent, and enlivened the city of Agra by the Yamuna river with the Taj Mahal. During the Ottoman period, Indian Lodges continued to exist in Istanbul.
Northern Islam (Hanafi) line
Indian subcontinent (in India, Bangladesh and Pakistan),
Greater Khorasan and North India Map
Mughal Empire Map
Ghazni State Map
Great Hun State and Akhuns Map
Mughal Empire Map, 1530-1707
http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/india/mughal-empire.htm YAMUNA RIVER, INDIA Delta has the cities of Agra and New Delhi, which house the Taj Mahal and the Delhi Sultanates.
Jiddu Krishnamurti http://www.halukberkmen.net/pdf/222.pdf
Participatory Awareness http://www.halukberkmen.net/pdf/256.pdf Knowing
Yourself http://www.halukberkmen.net/pdf/189. pdf
Age of Giants http://www.halukberkmen.net/pdf/267.pdf
Lost Continent MU http://www.halukberkmen.net/pdf/227.pdf
Development of Literature http://www.halukberkmen.net/pdf/ 51.pdf
“ URDU is spoken in the north-west of India and Pakistan. This language is close to the language of the Asian Turks who came from the north. It is originally an ORDU language and has been mixed with Persian and Hindi over time. Place names may also have changed. Because Indian culture is unique and has adapted the names to their own pronunciation.” Haluk Berkmen
India first started counting numeral expressions 300 years ago. Toward the 6th century, numbers 1 through 9 appeared, with digits from right to left. These figures began to be recognized outside of India around 660.
When the eight is subtracted from the other eight, there is nothing left.
Put a circle so it won’t be empty!
This is what Harezmi says; In his second work, which describes the Indian account and has been translated into Latin. In other words, ‘Kitab al-Muhtasar fil Hisap al Hind’.
The first act of mathematics is counting numbers. When the number system started to form, people knew only 1 and 2 for a very long time. Finding zero is much later. Humanity has lived without zero for centuries .
The Indians were the first to find it. The first person who introduced this concept to the Islamic world and used it for calculation was Harezmi.
In the first chapter of the Algebra Book devoted to the “Definition of decimal numbers”, Harezmi said:
“When I was thinking, what do people usually expect from calculation?, I saw that the expected ‘number’ is always expected.”
And “Kitâbu’l-Hisâbi’l-Hind” was started to be written. The work was about operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, which we call the four operations in arithmetic today.
It was with this work that the Indian numerals and the decimal number system entered the Islamic world. Like his Algebra, this work was the main source of all arithmetic books until the middle of the Western Renaissance.
Thanks to these two important mathematical works of Harezmi, the Indian numeral and calculation system, which was perfected by Khwarezmi, began to replace the letter-number and calculation system that had been in effect in the West since the Romans.
Italian mathematician Fibonacci, who realized that all numbers can be written with nine Indian numerals and a zero sign while translating Khwarazmi’s book into Latin, began his “Book of Abacus” with the following sentence, which would seem rather strange and incomprehensible to Europe: “With nine Indian numerals and a zero sign. all numbers can be written.”
His work in mathematics formed the basis of algebra . He determined that in India , where there was a period , the digit number system was used instead of letters or syllables to express numbers. This system of symbols and zero was presented to the western world in the 12th century as a result of the translation of the book written by Khwarezmi on this subject into Latin under the name Algoritmi de numero Indorum .
Kitab al-Muhtasar fil Hisab al-Hind.
‘Kitab al-Muhtasar fil Hisap al Hind’ has two more important roles in the history of mathematics. The first is that Europeans found examples of addition and subtraction in this work for the first time, and the other is that they learned for the first time that numbers are written from right to left, starting with the ones digit.
Kitab-ul-Muhtasar fil-Hisab-il-Hindi: This work, an Arabic copy of which has been obtained today, is the second important work of Harezmi. This work on Indian mathematics has a Latin translation, Numero Indorum, in Algorithmi at the Cambridge University Library. This translation was made by Adelhard from a copy found in Cordoba in the 12th century.
Harezmi, whose needs were met by the Caliph, made valuable researches in the fields of mathematics, astronomy and geography in Baghdad and during his travels. In 830, he went to India via Afghanistan to conduct scientific research as the head of the delegation.
He added the latitude and longitude book called Kitabu-Suret-il-Arz to the work prepared by the committee. In this work, he explained the source of the Nile River. He took the circle of longitude, which is the center of Malva and passes through the city of Ujjain in the Indian state of Gwalyar, as the prime meridian.
Harezmi, who gained fame in a short time in the scientific atmosphere of Baghdad, headed the scientific delegation that went to India via Afghanistanto study Indian mathematics, as well as in the scientific committee working at the Kasiyun Observatory in Damascus and in the scientific delegation that went to the Sinjar Plain to measure the length of the earth’s one-degree meridian arc. has too.
In an Italian translation of Khwarezmi’s book, which was written in order to introduce the Indian calculations and the operations that can be done with them, originating from the beginning of the 13th century and found in the Salem monastery, the writer responsible for duplicating the text could not help but add his own views:
“All numbers are derived from one, and one is from zero. It is necessary to know that a great temple is hidden in Zero: He (God) is symbolized at zero, which has neither beginning nor end, and neither increases nor decreases like zero; There is neither a river flowing to Him nor a river that breaks from Him. And just as zero multiplies all numbers tenfold, so He multiplies not only tenfold, but thousands of times, indeed, He creates, withholds, and directs all things out of nothing.”
While the astronomer al-Khwarizmi was writing a book comparing the benefits of using Indian numerals (and the concept of zero) with others, others were searching Indian geometry, astronomy, and even calendar systems for good ideas.
His work in mathematics formed the basis of algebra. He determined that in India, where there was a period , the digit number system was used instead of letters or syllables to express numbers. As a result of the translation of the book written by Khwarezmi on this subject into Latin under the name Algoritmi de numero Indorum, this system of symbols and zero was presented to the western world in the 12th century.
The use of the number system from 1 to 9 and the number zero in Europe is after the translation of Harezmî’s work into European languages. Until this date , the numeral system called Roman numerals was used in Europe , with which it was almost impossible to develop the science of mathematics.
It is worth noting that the Indians felt the existence of zero for the first time and used spaces instead of zero when writing numbers . This is not practical at all. However, what gives it a symbol and identity
“With 9 numbers and this new symbol it is possible to perform all operations”
He is the true discoverer of Harezmi zero . In other words, he is the man who completes the decimal system by adding zero to other numbers. Thus, the zero , which the Indians call sunya, gained its true identity with es- zero , which means empty in the Islamic scientific world, and started its journey to Europe.
1017 from Gazneli Mahmut , Khwarezm State ‘s destruction by Biruni in Ghazni came to the city where Gazneliler ‘ s auspices entered. He was highly respected in the palace and joined Mahmud of Gazne’s expedition to India . Here he attracted the attention of Indian scientists, and when the Indian country was conquered , he settled in the city of Nendene and continued his scientific studies here. He studied the life and culture of Indian society by learning Sanskrit .
It is understood from his letters that Bîrûnî knew Aristotle . Working with important scholars such as Ibn Sînâ , Birûnî went to India many times. That’s why he wrote a book on India. This book of his has been translated into several languages. This book, which has been translated into several languages, has set an example for many scholars. Birûni also has one novel.
Kitâb’üt-Tahkîk Mâ li’l-Hind: Bîrûnî, who also wrote a book on Indian history, described the superstitions, beliefs, lifestyles and customs and traditions that the Indians believed in in great detail, and while doing this, he acted completely impartially and away from prejudices.
Indian travel books have a special place in our literature. Al-Biruni’s Indian Travel Book is the work accepted even by the eminent scholar Hindus, who became eternal in the history of the East, and that even Nehru lauded. Al-Biruni, who is fluent in Persian and Arabic, even learned Sanskrit for India. The information he gave aside; He is the man who uses some of the knowledge that remains within the borders of this country and transfers his science to the Eastern world. (Medium)
Walter Ruben (hindologist)
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Walter Ruben (September 26, 1899 – November 7, 1982. German Indology expert, he was one of the scientists who came to Turkey after fleeing the Nazi genocide in Hitler’s Germany. He gave lectures at Ankara Faculty of Language, History and Geography for a while. He spent some of his exile years in Kırşehir. He wrote articles about the monuments of art.
His first copyrighted work, On the Verge of a World, is the discovery of Asia, especially “India” by Meriç, which until then was “a single continent in its geography and a single hemisphere in its head”. While searching for Olemp, Himalaya came across him. According to Meriç, who examines Indian literature and civilization with his thoughts and poetry, religion, philosophy and fairy tales in this book, which he says he buried for 48 years, “Contemporary Europe is a continuation of India with its brightest sides”.
As in the whole of his intellectual adventure, he sometimes complains about not being able to find his reader and not being understood during this sensitive work. But this world, where he invites everyone, is the homeland of freedom of thought. “Indian”, says Meriç, “because it is a country that gives a voice to every faith, it has become my second homeland. In this book there is the whole Indian with his dreams and his reality… that is, the whole human being.”
“The book written by a Turkish intellectual, Halide Edip, on India in the 1930s; in other words, “Inside India” had a great impact in its time. This book about the necessity of Muslim India is still discussed and is a well-known classic. Halide Hanım stayed long in India. He gave lectures at institutions such as Aligarh Islamic College. He made friends with all the great Indian intellectuals of the time. The report he wrote is considered one of the main works that point to the future of the country.” http://www. milliyet.com.tr/hind- travel book/ilber-ortayli/ pazar/Yazardetay/03.02.2013/ 1663852/default.htm
India is one of the regions that have been subjected to constant invasions because of the opportunities it has. It is seen that the idea of reaching this country and seizing its riches has almost turned into a “high ideal” in some periods. The fact that a balanced society structure has not been created in India throughout its history has a great share in this. Therefore, the diversity in its socio-cultural structure is one of the most important factors that attract foreign powers to this country.
For this reason, invasion movements towards India followed different paths. One issue that has never been worked on is the expeditions to India by land, especially through the passes in the North Northwest.
The Russian Occupation of Eastern Anatolia in the Ottoman-Russian War of 1828-1829 and Its Effect on the British Road to India Policy / Uğur Akbulut [The Caucasus Special Issue- III; 703] For other articles in this volume, click here.
India of the Turks / Enver KONUKÇU [Turkish World I; 355]Click for other articles in this volume.
XV. Ottoman Traders in India at the End of the Century / Prof. Dr. Halil SAHİLLİOĞLU [3/77]Click for other articles in this volume.
First Turkish Domination in India: Kushans and Akhuns / Prof. Dr. Salim Cöhce [1/815-820]Click for other articles in this volume.
Dominion of Ghaznavids in India / Prof. Dr. Salim Cöhce [4/522-525]Click for other articles in this volume.
Turkish States Established in India / Prof. Dr. Salim Cöhce [8/689-730]Click for other articles in this volume.
Mughals: “The Temürs in India” / Prof. Dr. Enver Konukçu [8/744-760]Click for other articles in this volume.
Turkish-Muslim Architecture and Art in India / Prof. Dr. İnci Macun [8/881-890]Click for other articles in this volume.
Architecture and Art of Timurids in India / Prof. Laura Parody [8/891-899]Click for other articles in this volume.
Sultan II. Ottomans and Indian Muslims in the Period of Abdulhamid / Assoc. Dr. Azmi Özcan [13/138-143]Click for other articles in this volume.
First Turkish Domination in India: Kushans and Akhuns / Prof. Dr. Salim Cöhce [1/569-579]Click for other articles in this volume.
Turkish States Established in India / Prof. Dr. Salim Cöhce [5/313-385]Click for other articles in this volume.
Mughals: “The Temürs in India” / Prof. Dr. Enver Konukçu [5/387-414]Click for other articles in this volume.
Turkish-Muslim Architecture and Painting in India / Prof. Dr. İnci Macun [5/447-460]Click for other articles in this volume.
Turkish States in India / Prof. Dr. Salim Cöhce [2/925-941]Click for other articles in this volume.
Baburids: Timurids in India / Prof. Dr. Enver Konukçu [2/942-959]Click for other articles in this volume.
Turkish Islamic Architecture and the Art of Painting in India / Prof. Dr. İnci Macun [2/998-1000]Click for other articles in this volume.
Architecture and Arts of the Indian Timurids / Dr. Laura Parody [2/1008-1015]Click for other articles in this volume.
The Ottomans and Muslims of India during the Reign of Sultan Abdulhamid II / Assoc.Prof. Dr. Azmi Özcan [4/299-303]Click for other articles in this volume.
Agra – Mughal Shah
Zahiriddin Muhammed Babur –
As a result of the search, 22 records were found.
Thesis No Author Year Thesis Name (Original/Translation) Type of Thesis Subject
389296 SERKAN BAYRAKTAROĞLU 2014 Investigating design for social innovation through business models in rural India: A model proposal for developing countries
Design review for business models and social innovation in rural India: A model proposal for developing countries PhD Economics = Economics ; Industrial Design = Industrial Design
368037 FATİH ESENBOĞA 2014 Two ways of seeing India in the travelogues of Kemalist orientalists and traditionalists
Two different perspectives on India in the travel works of traditionalists and Kemalist orientalists PhD Comparative Literature = Comparative Literature; Turkish Language and Literature = Turkish Language and Literature
188431 LEYLA SEN 2003 The US foreign policy and the institutionalization of dependency in the periphery in the post-WW2 era: Turkey and India compared (1947-73)
US foreign aid policy after the second world war and the institutionalization of dependency in the environment: Comparison of Turkey and India (1947-73) PhD Political Sciences = Political Science ; Date = History ; International Relations = International Relations
56890 MUSTAFA YALÇIN 1996 Use of activated carbons produced from indigeneous rav materials in gold hydrometallurgy as an alternative to coconut shell carbons
The use of activated carbons produced from domestic raw materials as an alternative to coconut-derived carbon in gold metallurgy Ph.D. Mining Engineering and Mining = Mining Engineering and Mining
370634 SOVEREIGN CALL MIZRAK 2014 BC. Steppe tribes in West Turkestan and North India from the 7th century to the middle of the 6th century AD
The steppe peoples of Western Turkistan and Northern India from the 7th century BC to the mid-6th century ad PhD Date = History
332673 İSMET GÖÇER 2013 Macroeconomic and productivity effects of foreign direct investments: The case of Turkey, China and India
Productivity and macroeconomic effects of foreign direct investment: The case of Turkey, China and India PhD Economics = Economics
345617 FUNDA GOLD 2013 Fine arts education at tertiary level in India, Bangladesh and Nepal
Fine arts education in India, Bangladesh and Nepal on higher educational level
342117 DESIRE SÜREN ÇİFTSÜREN 2013 Turkey and Turks in Urdu and Persian poetry in the India-Pakistan subcontinent after the 93 war
Turkey and Turks in Urdu and Persian Poems in Indo-Pak subcontinent after the 93 war. Ph.D. Eastern Languages and Literature = Eastern Linguistics and Literature; Date = History
330356 FIDA HUSSAIN 2012 Turkish War of Independence and Revolution in India
The Turkish War of independence and revolution in Indian literature PhD History = History ; History of Turkish Revolution = History of Turkish Revolution
327960 BIRD BIRD 2012 XVI. Ottoman-Indian relations in the commercial field in the 19th century
Commercial area relationships between Ottoman and India at 16th century PhD History = History
303613 PRAISE SHIELD 2011 Role of regional powers in the process of politicization of ethnicities: India-Sri Lanka relationship
The role of regional powers in the politicization process of ethnies: The case of India-Sri Lanka relations PhD International Relations = International Relations
277789 AYŞE DENKNALBANT 2010 Development of double minaret facades in pre-Ottoman Turkish architecture (Anatolia, Iran, Azerbaijan, India)
The development of the double minarets facades at the pre-ottoman Turkish architecture (Anatolia, Iran, Azerbaijan, India) Ph.D. Art History = Art History
257518 SERDAR CELEBI 2009 India: Current and probable place in international politics in the context of South Asia’s current geo-politics
PhD International Relations = International Relations
234528 MUSTAFA ÇAĞLAR ÖZDEMİR 2009 Comparative analysis of the labor market in the IT sector in Turkey with India and Ireland
Analyzing the labor force market in the information and communication technologies sector comparing with India and Ireland in Turkey PhD Economics = Economics ; Labor Economics and Industrial Relations = Labor Economics and Industrial Relations
190164 SUAT VURAL 2006 British rule in India
The British rule in India PhD Public Administration = Public Administration ; Date = History
148798 İLKNUR ÖZLEM BİÇER 2004 Removal of some pesticides from the aqueous medium by adsorbing on the adsorbent obtained from coconut shell
The removel of some pesticides from aqueous solutions using activated carbons produced from coconut shells
87434 NESLIHAN DURAK 1999 Expeditions to India from the north
PhD History = History
41642 GÜLSEREN HALICI ABAY 1995 Permanent Turkish traces in India (1542-1666)
Ph.D. Eastern Languages and Literature = Eastern Linguistics and Literature; Date = History
41904 HALİL TOKER 1995 Persian and Urdu poetry in India and World War II. Bahadir Shah Era poets
Ph.D. Eastern Languages and Literature = Eastern Linguistics and Literature
37306 KHALID ZAFERULLAH DAUDI 1994 Hadith studies in Pakistan and India from Shah Veliyullah al-Dehlavi (D. 1176/1762) to the present
PhD Religion = Religion
30615 MESUT SEN 1993 Gazi Zahiruddin Muhammed Babur ‘Baburname’ Introduction-text (Kabul and India chapters) annotated index
PhD Turkish Language and Literature = Turkish Language and Literature
22470 OSMAN BÜLENT YORULMAZ 1991 India in Turkish literature
PhD Turkish Language and Literature = Turkish Language and Literature
41642 This thesis is not allowed to be published on the database. You can access the hard copies of theses that do not have permission to be published through your University library (via TÜBESS).
Permanent Turkish traces in India (1542-1666) /
Author:GÜLSEREN HALICI ABAY
Advisor: YRD. ASSOC. DR. Find ŞEVKET
Location Information: Ankara University / Institute of Social Sciences / Department of Eastern Languages and Literatures / Department of Urdu Language and Literature
Subject: Eastern Languages and Literature = Eastern Linguistics and Literature ; Date = History
Index:Babur = Babur ; Celal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar = Celal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar ; India = India ; Nasir-ud-din Muhammad Humayun = Nasir-ud-din Muhammad Humayun ; Nur-ud-din Muhammad Cihangir = Nur-ud-din Muhammad Cihangir ; Turkish culture = Turkish culture ; Turks = Turks ; Urdu literature = Urdu literature ; Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur = Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur Confirmed
The real Muslim empire began to gain ground with the conquest of India by Mahmud of Ghazni (d.1030). After seventeen successful assaults against In dia he ultimately succeded to add important regions like Panjub and Sindh etc. to his empire. Soon after him Mohammad Ghauri (1173-1206) ann exed India and cemented the Muslim rule in the Sub-Continent. The^came the dynasties of the slaves, the Balbans, the Khiljies etc. But ultimately Delhi Reign began the fall with the ruthless reign of Ibrahim Lodhl. Babur came from Farghana and inflicted a crushing defeat upon him in the battle field of Panipat. Zahir-ud-din Mh. Babur ruled India for a short period of 5 years (1526- 1530), but he left a durable impresson in the history of Muslim rule in India. He had in him, many unique qualities of head and heart,which made him a great warrior as well as cool-headed statesman. He also earned a good name due to his cultural activities and literary achievements. In fact the foundations of the. Turk-Indo civilization in undivided India were laid down in his period. His elder son Nasiruddin Humayun (1530-40 / 1555-56) succeded him after his death. Humayun was a tenderhearted man. No doubt luck turned against him and he lost his throne to Sher Shah Surifora short period, but he didn’t loose heart and after the death of Sher Shah he came back to India and recaptured his throne. He made commendable contribution in devoloping Turk-Indo culture, of which his father was a pionar. Hümayun died in 1556 and his son Jalaluddin Mh. Akbar (1556- 1605) the great succeeded him to the, throne at the age of 13. He was a real genius,who ruled over India for 50 years wii great success. He expanded the boun daries of his great empire. He had a secular mind, so he developed reconciliatory relations among the Muslim and the Hindu. Being a very wise ruler, a great sta tesman and very bright person, he determined the needs of the region with gre at care and follawed a balanced state policy according to. the environment. 305 Nuruddln Mh. Jahangir (1605-1627) followed his great father, he was gen nerous emperor with good education and pleasant disposition. He patronized arts and literature. He was meticulous to apply his laws in the farthest regions of the country. When he died in 1627 Shahabuddin Mh. Shah Jahan (1628-1659) succeded him. He is called an Emperur the Architect The artistic value and beauty of the architectural men men ts of his time attract attention even today.Taj Mahal (Agra-India) wich immortalized the memory of his beloved wife Mümtaz Mahal, is one of the master pieces of the original architectural style of the period in gene ral and of the Turkish-Islamic architecture in particular. He died in 1666.
370634 Its use is restricted by the author until 27.06.2017.
B.C. The steppe peoples of Western Turkistan and Northern India from the 7th century BC to the mid-6th century ad
Author:EGEMEN ÇAĞRI MIZRAK
Advisor: PROF. DR. AHMET TAŞAĞIL
Location Information: Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University / Institute of Social Sciences / Department of History / Department of Medieval History
Subject:Date = History
Index:West Turkistan = Western Turkistan ; Steppe geography = Steppe geography ; Steppe culture = Nomadic culture ; Ancient steppe tribes = Steppe tribes ; India = India ; Tribes = Tribes ; Turkish tribes = Turkish tribes Confirmed
B.C. VII. Starting from the century AD VI. Until the Gokturk conquests in the 3rd quarter of the century, Eastern Iran, Toharistan, Sogdiana and North India geographies were dominated by various horse-archer warrior tribes of the Eurasian steppes. Among them, we can list the most famous ones chronologically as “Sakalar, Yüeh-chihs and Huns – Chionit, Kidarit, Ephthalite/White Hun”. While some scholars claim that the origin of these horse-archer steppe tribes is Altai, others (comprising a significant part of the scientists) are of the opinion that they are Indo-European. The origins of these tribes remain controversial due to anthropological and etymological studies motivated by arbitrary and/or political perspectives.The cultural characteristics and lifestyles of these horse-breeding nomads most authentically coincided with the Turkish tribes of present-day Central Asia and Southern Siberia. As a result of the analysis of their genealogy, socio-cultural and physical anthropological structures and genetic signs, we present strong evidence that these steppe nomads may be of Altai and especially Turkish origin.
327960 Its use is restricted by the author until 20.10.2018.
XVI. Ottoman – India relations in the commercial area in the 16th century / Commercial area relationships between Ottoman and India at 16th century
Advisor: PROF. DR. MUHAMMET BASHIR ASHAN
Location Information: Fırat University / Institute of Social Sciences / Department of History
Subject:Date = History
Index:16. century = 16th Century ; India = India ; Ottoman State = Ottoman State ; Ottoman Period = Ottoman Period ; Trade = Trade; Trade relations = Trade relations ; Turkish-Indian relations = Turkish-Indian relations Confirmed
In the Ottoman economic understanding, the needs were met first, and in case of insufficient supply, foreign purchase was needed. In other words, the state would meet the need and sell the surplus. However, the fact that the Ottoman Empire was in a geography with geopolitical and geostrategic importance -even if it did not have a merchant structure- pushed the Ottoman Empire to the mobility of transit trade. Thus, the Ottoman Empire, which did not give a primary place to commodity trade, especially exports, in its economy, made the requirements of transit trade and tried to take all kinds of measures to ensure comfortable trade. For this, he gave various orders and provisions to the local governments, and even carried out the necessary practices for the supply of derbent organization, covered bazaars, inns and caravanserais for the safety and comfort of the route in order to ensure the comfortable trade.Indian trade, on the other hand, was generally based on exports. In this sense, India was a merchant country. There was almost no import movement in India except for the import of horses, steel and iron for weapon making, slaves to work in production, knowledgeable and technically equipped soldiers and war equipment for strategic protection, gold, silver and luxury ornaments. Already, India’s rich geography was enough to meet its own needs. In the trade between the two countries, the addressee of the trade was not only two countries. Because trade itself had an intercontinental position. III Thus, Europe, the Arabian Peninsula, Iran and Africa were dealing with the trade that took place. Ottoman-India trade in XVI. The most important role in gaining density in the XV century.It is the conquest of Istanbul by Fatih Sultan Mehmed in the middle of the century. Ambassadors from India for congratulations also made trade connections. Intensity of trade, XVI. It started with the Ottomans taking important trade centers on the route of Eastern trade as a result of the 1516-1517 Syria, Palestine and Egypt campaigns of the Ottoman Empire, as it was in a position to endanger both the Mediterranean trade and the Ottoman lands against the Portuguese danger approaching with its weak Mamluk policy at the beginning of the century. In this context, the Ottoman Empire, exactly in the XVI. In the 19th century, it entered a trade concentration in the Mediterranean and the Red Sea, which was connected with the East. However, this situation disturbed the Europeans. XVI, which can be considered as an important turning point in the history of world trade. century comes to the forefront with its developments in the political and economic fields. XV.The discovery of new roads at the end of the century and the shift of trade routes from the Middle East to South Africa as a result of these discoveries, and thus the change in the balance of the world economy against the developing economy of Europe, XVI. events that marked the turn of the century. The Europeans were uncomfortable with the Ottomans’ holding of the Indian trade and the Middle East region of the historical Silk Road, and they did not want to experience situations such as road insecurity, taxes taken along the way, and the exhaustion of sea, river and land trade. For this, they took the Indian goods to their country by using the New roads and traveling around the Cape of Good Hope. The Portuguese, who wanted to monopolize the Indian trade, also wanted to strike a blow to the trade carried out by the Muslims in the Red Sea.Now the Portuguese struggle in Indian waters and the Red Sea, along with the struggle with Iran, had a profound effect on the Ottoman’s trade. XVI. This situation, which went bad at the beginning of the century, did not last long. From the middle of the century, the Ottomans succeeded in attracting the merchant states to the Mediterranean again with various privileges. Thus, Venice, Genoa, France and England revived the trade of the Ottoman Empire with the trade taxes. However, the situation XVII. century, it started to deteriorate again. Many trade cities such as Aleppo, Tripoli, Alexandria, Cairo, Bursa and Istanbul are no longer coming to spice and silk as they used to be; Despite the length of the route experienced in the new world trade, the British pirates, and the ocean danger due to climatic conditions, it was going to Lisbon, the distribution center of Europe.The scarcity of commodities such as spices, silk, cotton fabrics and dyes coming from India to the Ottoman land and waters was also reflected in the decrease in prices and tax revenues. On the other hand, the fact that Europe supplied a high amount of gold and silver to the market with the monetary revolution also shook the Ottoman economy. However, India and its wealth, which has an important place in the history of world trade, continued to flow to the world in any case. Keywords: Ottoman Empire, India, XVI. Century, trade, Mediterranean, trade route, Silk Road, trade commodities, spices, Silk, prices, Ottoman trade cities, Indian trade cities, Red Sea, Portugal, Iran, Europe, Geographical ExplorationsThis was reflected in prices and the decrease in tax revenues. On the other hand, the fact that Europe supplied a high amount of gold and silver to the market with the monetary revolution also shook the Ottoman economy. However, India and its wealth, which has an important place in the history of world trade, continued to flow to the world in any case. Keywords: Ottoman Empire, India, XVI. Century, trade, Mediterranean, trade route, Silk Road, trade commodities, spices, Silk, prices, Ottoman trade cities, Indian trade cities, Red Sea, Portugal, Iran, Europe, Geographical ExplorationsThis was reflected in prices and the decrease in tax revenues. On the other hand, the fact that Europe supplied a high amount of gold and silver to the market with the monetary revolution also shook the Ottoman economy. However, India and its wealth, which has an important place in the history of world trade, continued to flow to the world in any case. Keywords: Ottoman Empire, India, XVI. Century, trade, Mediterranean, trade route, Silk Road, trade commodities, spices, Silk, prices, Ottoman trade cities, Indian trade cities, Red Sea, Portugal, Iran, Europe, Geographical ExplorationsIn any case, it continued to flow into the world. Keywords: Ottoman Empire, India, XVI. Century, trade, Mediterranean, trade route, Silk Road, trade commodities, spices, Silk, prices, Ottoman trade cities, Indian trade cities, Red Sea, Portugal, Iran, Europe, Geographical ExplorationsIn any case, it continued to flow into the world. Keywords: Ottoman Empire, India, XVI. Century, trade, Mediterranean, trade route, Silk Road, trade commodities, spices, Silk, prices, Ottoman trade cities, Indian trade cities, Red Sea, Portugal, Iran, Europe, Geographical Explorations
342117 Pdf file
Turkey and Turks in Urdu and Persian Poems in Indo-Pak subcontinent after the 93 war.
Author:ARZU SÜREN DOUBLETUREN
Advisor: PROF. DR. HALIL TOKER
Location Information: Istanbul University / Institute of Social Sciences / Department of Eastern Languages and Literatures / Department of Urdu Language and Literature
Subject: Eastern Languages and Literature = Eastern Linguistics and Literature ; Date = History
Index:Persian = Persion ; India = India ; Pakistan = Pakistan ; War = War ; Turkey = Turkey ; Turks = Turks ; Urdu literature = Urdu literature ; Urdu = Urdu language ; Poem = Poem Confirmed
Urdu, the national official language of Pakistan and India, is spoken by approximately 1 billion people in these two countries and in many parts of the world, especially England. Urdu, a deep-rooted language of culture and literature, has been fused with the Turkish nation and Turkish culture, which has common values since the first days of its emergence, and many Turkish people have contributed to this language and its literature. Actually, it is a word of Turkish origin in Urdu. The word Turk has taken place in various aspects in the Indian Subcontinent Regional Literature, which was ruled by the Turks for hundreds of years. Especially, the troubled situation of the Turks in the process that started with the 93 War and continued with the War of Independence, Pakistan-India Sub-Continent? He found deep reflections in Urdu and Persian poems written inIn the newspapers they published during this period, they included the defeat or the victory of the Turks day by day. The Muslims of the Indian subcontinent, which is ruled by a non-Muslim state, England, are dependent on the Ottoman Empire due to the Caliphate. For this reason, they established various aid committees and sent their income to Istanbul. It is seen that the great poets of the region frequently used themes related to Turks in their works from time to time. Turkey and Turks in Urdu-Persian Poetry in the Indo-Pakistan Sub-Continent After the ’93 War? In the thesis on the theme, there are poems of poets such as Iqbal, Mevlana Zafer Ali Han, Shibli Numani, Hali, Hafiz Calendheri,The poems written about the Turks in the process that started with the 93 War and reached the present day will be brought together, and in this way, the perspective of Turkey and the Turks in the Indian-Pakistani Sub-Continent will be examined and the ties between the two cultures from the past to the present will be evaluated. Keywords: Turkey, Turks, 93 War, Balkan Wars, Tripoli War
368037 Its use is restricted by the author until 24.06.2017.
Two ways of seeing India in the travelogues of Kemalist orientalists and traditionalists
Author: FATIH ESENBOGA
Advisor: PROF. DR. MOHAMED BAKARI; ASST. ASSOC. DR. AGNES E. BRANDABUR
Location Information: Fatih University / Institute of Social Sciences / Department of Comparative Literature
Topic: Comparative Literature = Comparative Literature ; Turkish Language and Literature = Turkish Language and Literature
Directory: Adıvar, Halide Edip = Adıvar, Halide Edip ; Atay, Falih Rıfkı = Atay, Falih Rıfkı ; India = India ; Indian Muslims = Indian Muslims ; Comparative literature = Comparative literature ; Kemalism = Kemalism ; orientalist = orientalist ; Travelogue = Travelogue; Yalman, Ahmet Emin = Yalman, Ahmet Emin Confirmed
This thesis examines the origins of the ideological, cultural and social new forms of identification created by the radical modernization that started with the establishment of the Turkish Republic. The new elite of the Turkish Republic experienced an emotional break with the peoples of the East, and this break caused disappointment among the peoples who supported the Turkish War of Independence. India is one of these countries. This study analyzes the travel writings of Kemalist and Turkish writers excluded by the regime, who wrote travel works on India in the early period of the Turkish Republic. First of all, the sensitivity of the Hindu or Muslim Indian society about the Turkish War of Independence was revealed as a historical reality. Later, among them Falih Rıfkı Atay, Burhan Felek,A formal examination of the travel works of Ahmet Emin Yalman and Halide Edip Adıvar has begun. The aim of the formal analysis is to show that the radical westernization that emerged with the establishment of the Republic of Turkey led to Orientalist tendencies in some intellectuals when it comes to the peoples of the East. On the other hand, it is understood from the formal analyzes of the texts that the intellectuals who could not adapt to the Kemalist regime were able to look at the East and its peoples as if they were part of the East.It is understood from the formal analyzes of the texts that the intellectuals who could not adapt to the Kemalist regime were able to look at the East and its peoples as if they were part of the East.It is understood from the formal analyzes of the texts that the intellectuals who could not adapt to the Kemalist regime were able to look at the East and its peoples as if they were part of the East.
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