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Iran: Cities and Philosophers

Ali Kosh, Tappe/Tepe-i Ali Kuş Ö2
Dehloran, Khuzestan, Iran: site on the east side of the ‘Fertile Crescent’ with evidence of plant breeding and animal domestication (1961) 8000-3000 BC
Khorasan/Khorasan/Khorasan (“Orient”) B 1, 4, 5
Iran-Afghanistan: An important region in terms of cultural history, located in eastern Iran, it is assumed to be the hometown of Zoroaster, 10th century BC; It enjoyed its golden age under the Samanids, Ghaznavids, and Seljuks who lived around the Oxos [Amu Derya] River 873-1240, its cultural centers — Merv, Tüs, Nishapur, Mashhad, Vegetablevar
Iran T 4-6, 8, 11, S 2-5, 8, B 1, 2, 4, 5, S 5, F 1, 5
Southwest Asia: Fertile Crescent and eastern (“non-Semitic” or “non-Afro-Asian) part of the “Nil-Amu Darya Region”, ancient agriculture (Zagros Mountains) and urban and writing culture (Elam, Namazga) ) 1st by BC; Imperial Aramaic as linguae francae 6th-3rd BC. century, Hellenic 3rd century BC.
  1. st century, Arabic 7.-18. century and Persian 16th-18th. century and played an extremely important role in cultural transmission between East and West (East Asia, South Asia and Europe); important dynasties: Achaemenids 700-330 BC, Seleucid period (Hellenized Macedonians) 312-64 BC, Arshaki (Parthian) period 247 BC – 224 AD, Sassanid period 224-651, Abbasid period 750-945/1258, Samani period (in Transoxiana and Khorasan) between 873-1005, Seljuks (Turks) between 1040-1157, Ilhans (Mongols) between 1256-1335 and Safavid period between 1501-1722; prominent capitals—Parsa, Ktesiphon, Baghdad, Bukhara, Tabriz, Isfahan, and Shiraz; important regions — Media and Parsa/Pers, Khorasan and Khorezm and Transoxiana; origin region of gnostic Zoroastrianism (10th century BC – 10th century AD) and Manichaeanism (3rd-8th centuries), Islamic period 640 (Shiite period 16th century); golden age of philosophy 9th-11th.YY. (notable scholars: er-Razi, Ibn Sina, al-Biruni and al-Ghazali) and 16.-17. YY. (“Isfahan School”, important scholar: Molla Sadra
Isfahan/Esfahan/Aspahan A 6, 8, 11, B 1, 4, 5, G 5, F 1, 5
Iran: Capital of many different dynasties, its golden age in Seljuk 11-12. YY . and lived under Safavid (promoters of Shiism) rule 1598-1722, important ruler: Abbas the Great 1588-1629; Ferdowsi 10th century, Avicenna 11th century, al-Khayyam 11-12. YY.; “Isfahan School” in philosophy was founded by Mir Damad and Molla Sadra 16.-17. YY. between; Vegetables 19th century.
Merağa B 1, 4, 5, G 5, F 1
Azerbaijan, Iran: the first headquarters of the Mongolian ilkhans in 1258-65, the observatory and associated institute of mathematics and astronomy with an international team was founded by the philosopher Nasiruddin Tusi; Fahreddin er-Razi, es-Sühreverdi 12th century, Tusi, Kütbüddin Şirazi 13th century.
Nishapur/Nev-Sabur/Nishapur T 6, B 1, 4, 5, F 1
Khorasan, Iran: Sassanid administrative center 5th-6th. century, cultural center 9.-13. YY.; Borzuya 6th century. (?), al-‘Amiri 10th century, Nasır-ı Khusraw, al-Mawardi, al-Khayyam 11th century. al-Ghazali 11.-12. century., Chishti 12th century. Celaleddin Rumi, et-Tusi, 13th century; neighboring area — Tus and Mashhad Niuheliang BC 6
Parsa/Persepolis/Taht-ı Cemşid Ö 4, B 2
Near Shiraz, Fars, Iran: Achaemenid summer residences and cult centers were built by Darius the Great in 518 BC and destroyed by Alexander the Great in 330 BC; (C. Niebuhr 1770; Mesopotamian cuneiform begins to be deciphered with the deciphering of the Persepolis inscriptions, the youngest cuneiform script begins to be deciphered, written in the youngest cuneiform, alphabetic old Persian script, deciphered by GF Grotefend in Göttingen 1803)
Parsa/Persis/Persian/Persia/Iran T 4, Ö 4, 5, 8, B 1, 2, 4, 5, G 5
The core region that gave its name to the first Persian (Achaemenid) empire between 550-330 BC, important rulers: Great Küros/Kuruş (II) between 558-530 BC and Darius the Great/Darayavaus (I) between 522-486 BC; It was the central region in the golden age of Persian poetry 13.-14. YY.; expression covering the whole of Iran as a general concept
Parthava/Parthia/Anxi F 4, 5, B 2, G 5
Iran – Central Asia: Persian satrapy 6th century BC, core region of an Iranian empire over territories under the Arshakis 247 BC to 224 AD: commercial and cultural contacts with East and South Asia via the nascent Silk road (Zoroastrian Gnosticism, Buddhadharma and transfer of Aramaic script) and contacts with the Roman Empire (Parthian Wars); An Shigao, 2nd century BC.
Rey/Ragha(i) B 1, 2, 4, 5, G 5
Media/Iran: Today a district of Tehran; et-Tabari 9th century, Abu Bakr er-Razi 9th-10th. century., al-Amiri, al-Biruni (?) 10. century., Ibn Miskeveyh 10.-11. century, Ibn Sina 11th century, Fahreddin er-Razi 12th century.
Shiraz/Shiraz T 6, 11, Ö 8, B 1, 4, 5, G 5
Fars, Iran: Cultural center (honorary name: Evi Dar al-‘Ilm), its golden age of Mongol and Timurid rule 13.-15. century, 16th-17th century under the Safavids. YY. and Karim Khan lived as the capital of Zend 1750-1779; Shirazi, Sa’di, (al-Baydavi) 13th century, Hafz 14th century. ed-Devvani 15th century, Molla Sadra 16th-17th. YY. neighboring area — Parsa/Persepolis, Siral (intercontinental port city, — Sevahili)
Khorasan, Iran, Cultural center 9.-11. YY. “The city that is famous for its important educational institutions, even raising the suspicion of over-education” (Goethe, West-East Divan, 1819); (Harun er-Rashid 9th century), Ferdowsi, al-Ghazali 11th century, al-Tusi 13th century; nearby areas: Mashhad (Shiite pilgrimage site 817 around Imam Reza’s tomb), Mir Damad 16th century, Sehzevari 19th century; Nisapur
Source: Atlas of Philosophy

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