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Turcae by Pomponius Mela of Roman geographer and Plinius of Roman natural philosopher

Pomponius Mela

Pomponius Mela, who wrote around AD 43, was the earliest Roman geographer. He was born in Tingentera (now Algeciras) and died c. AD 45.[1]

His short work (De situ orbis libri III.) remained in use nearly to the year 1500.[2] It occupies less than one hundred pages of ordinary print, and is described by the Encyclopædia Britannica (1911) as “dry in style and deficient in method, but of pure Latinity, and occasionally relieved by pleasing word-pictures.”[3] Except for the geographical parts of Pliny‘s Historia naturalis (where Mela is cited as an important authority), the De situ orbis is the only formal treatise on the subject in Classical Latin.


Pliny the Elder

Pliny the Elder
Gaius Plinius Secundus
Como - Dome - Facade - Plinius the Elder.jpg

Statue of Pliny the Elder on the facade of Cathedral of S. Maria Maggiore in Como
Born AD 23 or 24

Died AD 79 (aged 55)

Stabiae, Roman Italy, Roman Empire
Citizenship Roman
Education Rhetoricgrammar
Occupation Lawyerauthornatural philosophernaturalistmilitary commander, provincial governor
Notable work
Naturalis Historia
Children Pliny the Younger (nephew, later adopted son)
Parent(s) Gaius Plinius Celer and Marcella


Gaius Plinius Secundus (AD 23/24 – 79), called Pliny the Elder (/ˈplɪni/),[1] was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, and naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and a friend of the emperor Vespasian. He wrote the encyclopedic Naturalis Historia (Natural History), which became an editorial model for encyclopedias. He spent most of his spare time studying, writing, and investigating natural and geographic phenomena in the field.


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