HomeTURKEY TRAVELLERSFIRST TURKEY FIRSTLEATHER Expressions in Illiada and Odissea

LEATHER Expressions in Illiada and Odissea

 
Tragedy
Yet another ancient reference for leather is the famous Greek Theatre where, especially in the major tragedy plays, the actors carried or wore masks, and often clothing, made from goat skins. The word tragedy itself derived from the Greek tragoidia, tragos = goat and ode = song and indicates that cloth and masks were using goat skins, raw, but cleaned and also used hair-on. For garments it would have been softened but for masks the skin would have dried on a model, for the face or the whole head, shaved in those parts where the skin should be visible, but keeping the hair for the head and beard. The different goat skins allowed white hair for the philosopher, for instance, or black, wild hair for villain. Even today, many Venetian masks are still made using leather.
Actor’s Mask
Iliad, the Odyssey
Expressions in Illiada and Odissea indicate in detail the fields in which Anatolians have used leather. It is possible to read in this valuable book the stories of leather used in such fields as clothing products, household goods, vessels, war tools, hunting devices, tents, horse harnesses, agricultural items, transport supplies, musical instruments, sports games, punitive vehicles, parchment.
A wild ox’s hide was spread beneath
And a beautiful kilim beneath the head (the Iliad)
So he said and prepared a bed for him
Spreading the sheep and goat hide next to the fire
Odyssey laid down on the bed, and the shepherd threw the wooden cloth on him. (the Odyssey)
In Odyssey and the Iliad of Homer, the outfits of the characters have been described in detail from which we understand hides of various animals were used as clothes in the antique period.
 
 
Shoe production depicted on a Greek vase
İlyada Destanındaki Dericilik Terimleri
 
bullock’s hide
goat hide
hides
Ida
Leather
mountains of Ida,
ox’s hide
oxhide
ox-hide
ox-hide shields
 
boğa derisi
deri
deri kalkan
Derici
kara deri
keçi      
koyun
koyun derisi
öküz
öküz derisi
öküz derisi kalkan
pars derisi
sansar derisi
sığır derisi
Sığır derisinden kalkan
Sığır
tosun derisi
Tragedy
Yet another ancient reference for leather is the famous Greek Theatre where, especially in the major tragedy plays, the actors carried or wore masks, and often clothing, made from goat skins. The word tragedy itself derived from the Greek tragoidia, tragos = goat and ode = song and indicates that cloth and masks were using goat skins, raw, but cleaned and also used hair-on. For garments it would have been softened but for masks the skin would have dried on a model, for the face or the whole head, shaved in those parts where the skin should be visible, but keeping the hair for the head and beard. The different goat skins allowed white hair for the philosopher, for instance, or black, wild hair for villain. Even today, many Venetian masks are still made using leather.
Actor’s Mask
Iliad, the Odyssey
Expressions in Illiada and Odissea indicate in detail the fields in which Anatolians have used leather. It is possible to read in this valuable book the stories of leather used in such fields as clothing products, household goods, vessels, war tools, hunting devices, tents, horse harnesses, agricultural items, transport supplies, musical instruments, sports games, punitive vehicles, parchment.
A wild ox’s hide was spread beneath
And a beautiful kilim beneath the head (the Iliad)
So he said and prepared a bed for him
Spreading the sheep and goat hide next to the fire
Odyssey laid down on the bed, and the shepherd threw the wooden cloth on him. (the Odyssey)
In Odyssey and the Iliad of Homer, the outfits of the characters have been described in detail from which we understand hides of various animals were used as clothes in the antique period.
Shoe production depicted on a Greek vase
Homer, The Iliad, Scroll 7, line 2. İDA LEATHER
As they were speaking, Nestor horseman of Gerene shook the helmet, and from it there fell the very lot which they wanted – the lot of Ajax. The herald bore it about and showed it to all the chieftains of the Achaeans, going from left to right; but they none of them owned it. When, however, in due course he reached the man who had written upon it and had put it into the helmet, brave Ajax held out his hand, and the herald gave him the lot. When Ajax saw his mark [sêma] he knew it and was glad; he threw it to the ground and said, “My friends, the lot is mine, and I rejoice, for I shall vanquish Hektor. I will put on my armor;
meanwhile, pray to King Zeus in silence among yourselves that the Trojans may not hear you – or aloud if you will, for we fear no man. None shall overcome me, neither by force nor cunning, for I was born and bred inSalamis, and can hold my own in all things.”
With this they fell praying to King Zeus the son of Kronos, and thus would one of them say as he looked into the vault of heaven, “Father Zeus, you who rule from Ida, most glorious in power, grant victory to Ajax, and let him win great glory: but if you wish well to Hektor also and would protect him, grant to each of them equal fame and prowess. Thus they prayed, and Ajax armed himself in his suit of gleaming bronze. When he was in full array he sprang forward as monstrous Ares when he takes part among men whom Zeus has set fighting with one another – even so did huge Ajax, bulwark of the Achaeans, spring forward with a grim smile on his face as he brandished his long spear and strode onward. The Argives were elated as they beheld him, but the Trojans trembled in every limb, and the heart even of Hektor beat quickly, but he could not now retreat and withdraw into the ranks behind him, for he had been the challenger. Ajax came up bearing his shield in front of him like a wall – a shield of bronze with seven folds of oxhide – the work of Tychios, who lived in Hyle and was by far the best worker in leather. He had made it with the hides of seven full-fed bulls, and over these he had set an eighth layer of bronze. Holding this shield before him, Ajax son of Telamon came close up to Hektor, and menaced him saying, “Hektor, you shall now learn, man to man, what kind of champions the Danaans have among them even besides lion-hearted Achilles cleaver of the ranks of men. He now abides at the ships in anger with Agamemnon shepherd of his people, but there are many of us who are well able to face you; therefore begin the fight.”
And Hektor answered, “Noble Ajax, son of Telamon, leader of the host, treat me not as though I were some puny boy or woman that cannot fight.
I have been long used to the blood and butcheries of battle. I am quick to turn my leathern shield either to right or left, for this I deem the main thing in battle. I can charge among the chariots and horsemen, and in hand to hand fighting can delight the heart of Ares; howbeit I would not take such a man as you are off his guard – but I will smite you openly if I can.”
He poised his spear as he spoke, and hurled it from him. It struck the sevenfold shield in its outermost layer – the eighth, which was of bronze – and went through six of the layers but in the seventh hide it stayed. Then Ajax threw in his turn, and struck the round shield of the son of Priam. The terrible spear went through his gleaming shield, and pressed onward through his cuirass of cunning workmanship; it pierced the shirt against his side, but he swerved and thus saved his life. They then each of them drew out the spear from his shield, and fell on one another like savage lions or wild boars of great strength and endurance: the son of Priam struck the middle of Ajax’s shield, but the bronze did not break, and the point of his dart was turned. Ajax then sprang forward and pierced the shield of Hektor; the spear went through it and staggered him as he was springing forward to attack; it gashed his neck and the blood came pouring from the wound, but even so Hektor did not cease fighting; he gave ground, and with his brawny hand seized a stone, rugged and huge, that was lying upon the plain; with this he struck the shield of Ajax on the boss that was in its middle, so that the bronze rang again. But Ajax in turn caught up a far larger stone, swung it aloft, and hurled it with prodigious force. This millstone of a rock broke Hektor’s shield inwards and threw him down on his back with the shield crushing him under it,
but Apollo raised him at once. Thereon they would have hacked at one another in close combat with their swords, had not heralds, messengers of gods and men, come forward, one from the Trojans and the other from the Achaeans – Talthybios and Idaios both of them honorable men; these parted them with their staves, and the good herald Idaios said, “My sons, fight no longer, you are both of you valiant, and both are dear to Zeus; we know this; but night is now falling, and the behests of night may not be well gainsaid.”
Ajax son of Telamon answered, “Idaios, bid Hektor say so, for it was he that challenged our princes. Let him speak first and I will accept his saying.”
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:1999.01.0217:book=7:card=2&highlight=ida2Cleather
Homer, The Iliad, Scroll 12, line 1 İDA HİDE (leather ile esanlamli
He spoke, but moved not the mind of Zeus, whose counsel it then was to give glory to Hektor. Meanwhile the rest of the Trojans were fighting about the other gates; I, however, am no god to be able to tell about all these things, for the battle raged everywhere about the stone wall as it were a fiery furnace. The Argives, discomfited though they were, were forced to defend their ships, and all the gods who were defending the Achaeans were vexed in spirit; but the Lapiths kept on fighting with might and main.
Thereon Polypoites, mighty son of Peirithoos, hit Damasos with a spear upon his cheek-pierced helmet. The helmet did not protect him, for the point of the spear went through it, and broke the bone, so that the brain inside was scattered about, and he died fighting. He then slew Pylon and Ormenus. Leonteus, of the race of Ares, killed Hippomakhos the son of Antimakhos by striking him with his spear upon the belt. He then drew his sword and sprang first upon Antiphates whom he killed in combat, and who fell face upwards on the earth. After him he killed Menon, Iamenos, and Orestes, and laid them low one after the other.
While they were busy stripping the armor from these heroes, the youths who were led on by Polydamas and Hektor (and these were the greater part and the most valiant of those that were trying to break through the wall and fire the ships) were still standing by the trench, uncertain what they should do; for they had seen a sign from heaven when they had essayed to cross it – a soaring eagle that flew skirting the left wing of their host, with a monstrous blood-red snake in its talons still alive and struggling to escape. The snake was still bent on revenge, wriggling and twisting itself backwards till it struck the bird that held it, on the neck and breast; whereon the bird being in pain, let it fall, dropping it into the middle of the host, and then flew down the wind with a sharp cry. The Trojans were struck with terror when they saw the snake, portent of aegis-bearing Zeus, writhing in the midst of them, and Polydamas went up to Hektor and said, “Hektor, at our councils of war you are ever given to rebuke me, even when I speak wisely, as though it were not well, indeed, that one of the people of the local district [dêmos] should cross your will either in the field or at the council board; you would have them support you always: nevertheless I will say what I think will be best; let us not now go on to fight the Danaans at their ships, for I know what will happen if this soaring eagle which skirted the left wing of our with a monstrous blood-red snake in its talons (the snake being still alive) was really sent as an omen to the Trojans on their essaying to cross the trench. The eagle let go her hold; she did not succeed in taking it home to her little ones, and so will it be – with ourselves;
even though by a mighty effort we break through the gates and wall of the Achaeans, and they give way before us, still we shall not return in good order [kosmos] by the way we came, but shall leave many a man behind us whom the Achaeans will do to death in defense of their ships. Thus would any seer who was expert in these matters, and was trusted by the people, read the portent.”
Hektor looked fiercely at him and said, “Polydamas, I like not of your reading. You can find a better saying than this if you will. If, however, you have spoken in good earnest, then indeed has heaven robbed you of your reason. You would have me pay no heed to the counsels of Zeus, nor to the promises he made me – and he bowed his head in confirmation; you bid me be ruled rather by the flight of wild-fowl. What care I whether they flee towards dawn or dark, and whether they be on my right hand or on my left? Let us put our trust rather in the counsel of great Zeus, king of mortals and immortals. There is one omen, and one only – that a man should fight for his country. Why are you so fearful? Though we be all of us slain at the ships of the Argives you are not likely to be killed yourself, for you are not steadfast nor courageous. If you will. not fight, or would talk others over from doing so, you shall fall forthwith before my spear.”
With these words he led the way, and the others followed after with a cry that rent the air. Then Zeus the lord of thunder sent the blast of a mighty wind from the mountains of Ida, that bore the dust down towards the ships; he thus lulled the thinking [noos] of the Achaeans into security, and gave victory to Hektor and to the Trojans, who, trusting to their own might and to the signs he had shown them, essayed to break through the great wall of the Achaeans. They tore down the breastworks from the walls, and overthrew the battlements; they upheaved the buttresses, which the Achaeans had set in front of the wall in order to support it; when they had pulled these down they made sure of breaking through the wall, but the Danaans still showed no sign of giving ground; they still fenced the battlements with their shields of oxhide, and hurled their missiles down upon the foe as soon as any came below the wall.
The two Ajaxes went about everywhere on the walls cheering on the Achaeans, giving fair words to some while they spoke sharply to any one whom they saw to be remiss. “My friends,” they cried, “Argives one and all – good bad and indifferent, for there was never fight yet, in which all were of equal prowess – there is now work enough, as you very well know, for all of you. See that you none of you turn in flight towards the ships, daunted by the shouting of the foe, but press forward and keep one another in heart, if it may so be that Olympian Zeus the lord of lightning will grant us to repel our foes, and drive them back towards the city.”
Thus did the two go about shouting and cheering the Achaeans on. As the flakes that fall thick upon a winter’s day, when Zeus is minded to snow and to display these his arrows to humankind – he lulls the wind to rest, and snows hour after hour till he has buried the tops of the high mountains, the headlands that jut into the sea, the grassy plains, and the tilled fields of men; the snow lies deep upon the forelands, and havens of the gray sea, but the waves as they come rolling in stay it that it can come no further, though all else is wrapped as with a mantle so heavy are the heavens with snow – even thus thickly did the stones fall on one side and on the other, some thrown at the Trojans, and some by the Trojans at the Achaeans; and the whole wall was in an uproar.
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:1999.01.0217:book=12:card=1&highlight=hide2Cida
Homer, The Iliad, Scroll 16, line 5 İDA HİDE
As he spoke the Trojans were plunged in extreme and ungovernable grief [penthos]; for Sarpedon, alien though he was, had been one of the main stays of their city, both as having many people with him, and himself the foremost among them all. Led by Hektor, who was infuriated by the fall of Sarpedon, they made instantly for the Danaans with all their might, while the undaunted spirit of Patroklos son of Menoitios cheered on the Achaeans. First he spoke to the two Ajaxes, men who needed no bidding. “Ajaxes,” said he, “may it now please you to show yourselves the men you have always been, or even better- Sarpedon is fallen – he who was first to overleap the wall of the Achaeans; let us take the body and outrage it; let us strip the armor from his shoulders, and kill his comrades if they try to rescue his body.”
He spoke to men who of themselves were full eager; both sides, therefore, the Trojans and Lycians on the one hand, and the Myrmidons and Achaeans on the other, strengthened their battalions, and fought desperately about the body of Sarpedon, shouting fiercely the while. Mighty was the din of their armor as they came together, and Zeus shed a thick darkness over the fight, to increase the ordeal [ponos] of the battle over the body of his son.
At first the Trojans made some headway against the Achaeans, for one of the best men among the Myrmidons was killed, Epeigeus, son of noble Agakles who had erewhile been king in the good city of Boudeion; but presently, having killed a valiant kinsman of his own, he took refuge with Peleus and Thetis, who sent him to Ilion the land of noble steeds to fight the Trojans under Achilles. Hektor now struck him on the head with a stone just as he had caught hold of the body,
and his brains inside his helmet were all battered in, so that he fell face foremost upon the body of Sarpedon, and there died. Patroklos was enraged with grief [akhos] over by the death of his comrade, and sped through the front ranks as swiftly as a hawk that swoops down on a flock of daws or starlings. Even so swiftly, O noble horseman Patroklos, did you make straight for the Lycians and Trojans to avenge your comrade. Forthwith he struck Sthenelaos the son of Ithaimenes on the neck with a stone, and broke the tendons that join it to the head and spine. On this Hektor and the front rank of his men gave ground. As far as a man can throw a javelin in competition [athlos] for some prize, or even in battle – so far did the Trojans now retreat before the Achaeans. Glaukos, leader of the Lycians, was the first to rally them, by killing Bathykles son of Khalkon who lived in Hellas and was supreme in wealth [olbos] among the Myrmidons. Glaukos turned round suddenly, just as Bathykles who was pursuing him was about to lay hold of him, and drove his spear right into the middle of his chest, whereon he fell heavily to the ground, and the fall of so good a man filled the Achaeans with dismay [akhos], while the Trojans were exultant, and came up in a body round the corpse. Nevertheless the Achaeans, mindful of their prowess, bore straight down upon them.
Meriones then killed a helmed warrior of the Trojans, Laogonos son of Onetor, who was priest of Zeus of Mount Ida, and was honored in the district [dêmos] as though he were a god. Meriones struck him under the jaw and ear, so that life went out of him and the darkness of death laid hold upon him. Aeneas then aimed a spear at Meriones, hoping to hit him under the shield as he was advancing, but Meriones saw it coming and stooped forward to avoid it, whereon the spear flew past him and the point stuck in the ground, while the butt-end went on quivering till Ares robbed it of its force. The spear, therefore, sped from Aeneas’ hand in vain and fell quivering to the ground. Aeneas was angry and said, “Meriones, you are a good dancer, but if I had hit you my spear would soon have made an end of you.”
And Meriones answered, “Aeneas, for all your bravery, you will not be able to make an end of every one who comes against you. You are only a mortal like myself, and if I were to hit you in the middle of your shield with my spear, however strong and self-confident you may be, I should soon vanquish you, and you would yield your life-breath [psukhê] to Hades of the noble steeds.”
On this the son of Menoitios rebuked him and said, “Meriones, hero though you be, you should not speak thus; taunting speeches, my good friend, will not make the Trojans draw away from the dead body; some of them must go under ground first; the outcome [telos] of battle is in the force of hands, while the outcome of deliberation is words; fight, therefore, and say nothing.”
He led the way as he spoke and the hero went forward with him. As the sound of woodcutters in some forest glade upon the mountains- and the thud of their axes is heard afar – even such a din now rose from earth-clash of bronze armor and of good oxhide shields, as men smote each other with their swords and spears pointed at both ends. A man had need of good eyesight now to know Sarpedon, so covered was he from head to foot with spears and blood and dust. Men swarmed about the body, as flies that buzz round the full milk-pails in the season [hôra] of spring when they are brimming with milk – even so did they gather round Sarpedon; nor did Zeus turn his keen eyes away for one moment from the fight, but kept looking at it all the time, for he was settling how best to kill Patroklos, and considering whether Hektor should be allowed to end him now in the fight round the body of Sarpedon, and strip him of his armor, or whether he should let him give yet further trouble [ponos] to the Trojans. In the end, he deemed it best that the brave squire [therapôn] of Achilles son of Peleus should drive Hektor and the Trojans back towards the city and take the lives of many. First, therefore, he made Hektor turn fainthearted, whereon he mounted his chariot and fled, bidding the other Trojans flee also,
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:1999.01.0217:book=16:card=5&highlight=hide2Cida
Homer, The Iliad, Scroll 22, line 1
alcon with a shrill scream follows close after, resolved to have her – even so did Achilles make straight for Hektor with all his might, while Hektor fled under the Trojan wall as fast as his limbs could take him.
On they flew along the wagon-road that ran hard by under the wall, past the lookout station, and past the weather-beaten wild fig-tree, till they came to two fair springs which feed the river Skamandros. One of these two springs is warm, and steam rises from it as smoke from a burning fire, but the other even in summer is as cold as hail or snow, or the ice that forms on water. Here, hard by the springs, are the goodly washing-troughs of stone, where in the time of peace before the coming of the Achaeans the wives and fair daughters of the Trojans used to wash their clothes. Past these did they flee, the one in front and the other giving chase behind him: good was the man that fled,
but better far was he that followed after, and swiftly indeed did they run, for the prize was no mere beast for sacrifice or bullock’s hide, as it might be for a common foot-race, but they ran for the life [psukhê] of Hektor. As horses in a chariot race speed round the turning-posts when they are running for some great prize [athlon] – a tripod or woman – at the games in honor of some dead hero, so did these two run full speed three times round the city of Priam. All the gods watched them, and the sire of gods and men was the first to speak.
“Alas,” said he, “my eyes behold a man who is dear to me being pursued round the walls of Troy; my heart is full of pity for Hektor, who has burned the thigh-bones of many a heifer in my honor, at one while on the of many-valleyed Ida, and again on the citadel of Troy; and now I see noble Achilles in full pursuit of him round the city of Priam. What say you? Consider among yourselves and decide whether we shall now save him or let him fall, valiant though he be, before Achilles, son of Peleus.”
Then Athena said, “Father, wielder of the lightning, lord of cloud and storm, what mean you? Would you pluck this mortal whose doom has long been decreed out of the jaws of death? Do as you will, but we others shall not be of a mind with you.” And Zeus answered, “My child, Trito-born, take heart. I did not speak in full earnest, and I will let you have your way. Do as your thinking [noos] tells you, without letting up, without hindrance.”
Thus did he urge Athena who was already eager, and down she darted from the topmost summits of Olympus.
Achilles was still in full pursuit of Hektor, as a hound chasing a fawn which he has started from its covert on the mountains, and hunts through glade and thicket. The fawn may try to elude him by crouching under cover of a bush, but he will scent her out and follow her up until he gets her – even so there was no escape for Hektor from the fleet son of Peleus. Whenever he made a set to get near the Dardanian gates and under the walls, that his people might help him by showering down weapons from above, Achilles would gain on him and head him back towards the plain, keeping himself always on the city side. As a man in a dream who fails to lay hands upon another whom he is pursuing – the one cannot escape nor the other overtake – even so neither could Achilles come up with Hektor, nor Hektor break away from Achilles; nevertheless he might even yet have escaped death had not the time come when Apollo, who thus far had sustained his strength and nerved his running, was now no longer to stay by him. Achilles made signs to the Achaean host, and shook his head to show that no man was to aim a dart at Hektor, lest another might win the glory of having hit him and he might himself come in second. Then, at last, as they were nearing the fountains for the fourth time, the father of all balanced his golden scales and placed a doom in each of them, one for Achilles and the other for Hektor. As he held the scales by the middle, the doom of Hektor fell down deep into the house of Hades – and then Phoebus Apollo left him. Thereon Athena went close up to the son of Peleus and said, “Noble Achilles, favored of heaven, I think in my mind [noos] we two shall surely take back to the ships a triumph for the Achaeans by slaying Hektor, for all his lust of battle. Do what Apollo may as he lies groveling before his father, aegis-bearing Zeus, Hektor cannot escape us longer. Stay here and take breath, while I go up to him and persuade him to make a stand and fight you.”
Thus spoke Athena. Achilles obeyed her gladly, and stood still, leaning on his bronze-pointed ashen spear, while Athena left him and went after Hektor in the form and with the voice of Deiphobos. She came close up to him and said, “Dear brother, I see you are hard pressed by Achilles who is chasing you at full speed round the city of Priam, let us await his onset and stand on our defense.”
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:1999.01.0217:book=22:card=1&highlight=hide2Cida
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