HomeREADERSPHILOSOPHY & WISDOMAre there any co-founder texts of the Turkish world?

Are there any co-founder texts of the Turkish world?

There are Turkish texts that are reborn and resurrected with new readers every century. A review article on immortal works from Dede Korkut to Manas Epic, from Orkhon Monuments to Mevlidi Şerife, and from Siyahname to Safahat.
Necip Tosun   Yeni Şafak
Turkish, which is the language spoken and written by millions of people spread over a wide geography of the world, is like gardens in which there are thousands of flowers in various colors, tones and scents in every region. The flowers that grow according to the characteristics of each soil, air and climate are fused with the most beautiful scents and articulated with each other. Despite all the distances, there is a common scent and flowers, which are a common color, that take place in every garden. Every century, every season, it turns green, grows, and covers the garden. Sometimes Dede Korkut, sometimes Manas Epic, sometimes Yunus, sometimes Fuzûlî, these flowers bloom again and connect all the gardens.

Unfortunately, over time, our mother tongue has separated from each other for various reasons, and there is no difference in terms of “reach” between a work written in the Turkish republics and a work in Western literature. Invasions, mankurtization and games on language intervened. The languages ​​of the brothers have moved away from each other, and the gardens have been destroyed. The memory is wounded, the gardens are filled with wild, thorny plants that do not belong to us. The common odor has gradually decreased, and the Turkish voice has been muffled.

The great story of the Turk has always been sad and strange throughout history. His voice is muted, his image disappears. We know, our story is heard a little late, it is covered up, our stories remain in the dark. But it definitely springs from somewhere, resonates. For example, our stories that we carved on stones in Orhun in the 8th century remain in the darkness of history for 10 centuries. Our voice, our story is lost until a stranger comes and finds it in the 18th century. Dîvânu Lugâti’t-Türk, which we wrote in the 10th century, is miraculously found nine centuries later thanks to Ali Emir. In other words, the dictionary we write will resurrect after nine centuries and enter our lives. On the other hand, our Dede Korkut Book, epics and other manuscripts are in foreign hands, not in our archives: in the Vatican, in Dresten, in other archives… Therefore, the story of the Turk is sad.


On the other hand, the voice of Turkeli, Turkestan region is muted again since 1875. Turkish geographies are under Soviet occupation. In this region, Dede Korkut in Azerbaijan, Manas Epic in Kyrgyzstan, Köroğlu in Turkmenistan are banned. In fact, in these regions, our story is not only banned, but our storytellers are murdered in an unprecedented way in world history. Thousands of Turkish intellectuals, writers, writers, poets are subjected to an unprecedented slaughter and are shot. Chingiz Aitmatov’s father is among the intellectuals who were shot. The voice of the Turk, the voice of the Turk’s story, is once again muted. The story of the Turk is always so strange and sad. The occupation does not end here. The language and identity of the people of this region are tried to be completely forgotten. Especially with the transition to the Cyrillic alphabet, the communication between Turkey and the Turkish people is severely cut.

But we said that no matter how blocked the story of the Turk is, he will find a way to make his voice heard. In 1991, five Turkish republics regained their freedom in this region. In a sense, this is like the re-discovery of the Orkhon Inscriptions years later. It is so important and so meaningful. The Turkish peoples, who had been under Russian occupation since 1875 and had to live under Soviet captivity after the October Revolution of 1917, returned to their true story with the independence gained after 1991. The meeting of the brothers, who were separated after 1991, takes place once again. However, this time, despite the unity and closeness of language, religion, history, culture and tradition between the Turkish republics, it is seen that the intervening long years, revolutions, periods have dealt heavy blows to the rapprochement between the brothers. It is revealed how seriously the Soviet state tried to disidentify the Turkish peoples and to destroy the national spirit.

While the newspaper Tercüman, published by İsmail Gaspıralı in the early 1900s, was easily understood by all Turkish regions, in 1991, it is seen that the brothers moved away from each other as a result of the policies implemented (language, alphabet, understanding, etc.). In this process, it is seen that literature has undertaken an important task in the policy of mankurtization applied by the USSR administration on the Turkic peoples and it has been successful in this sense. Unfortunately, the Turkish languages ​​were separated from each other as a result of these policies, and there was no difference between a work in the Turkic republics and a work in the Western world. As a result of the policies implemented (language, alphabet, understanding, etc.), it is seen that the siblings are far from each other. In this process, it is seen that literature has undertaken an important task in the policy of mankurtization applied by the USSR administration on the Turkic peoples and it has been successful in this sense.

Unfortunately, the Turkish languages ​​were separated from each other as a result of these policies, and there was no difference between a work in the Turkic republics and a work in the Western world. As a result of the policies implemented (language, alphabet, understanding, etc.), it is seen that the siblings are far from each other. In this process, it is seen that literature has undertaken an important task in the policy of mankurtization applied by the USSR administration on the Turkic peoples and it has been successful in this sense. Unfortunately, the Turkish languages ​​were separated from each other as a result of these policies, and there was no difference between a work in the Turkic republics and a work in the Western world.


If we want to rediscover and discover our centuries-old common voice and melody, our first stop should be the founding texts of art and literature and qualified examples of contemporary literature. Because we are people of a common language and spirit. Our common culture and common history will bring us closer together. There are thousands of kilometers and hundreds of years apart; but we are still people of the same language and spirit. We can refresh our memory by looking at the resources, common aspects, and accumulations that bind us together and remembering them again. We can re-read our savings, our stories, our memory (Orkhon Monuments) that we put on stones to tell us something today. As the lost sons of a large family, we can search for ways to return home, and reinterpret the paths and traces that separate us from each other.

We can find a way to reach each other by giving life to our words that have already disappeared from Kasgarli Mahmud’s dictionary. We can learn our common worldview from Yusuf Has Hacib and walk in the light of the wisdom of Divan-ı Wisdom. The stories of Dede Korkut and the glories of Manas can bring us closer together. We can learn to look at the seventy-two sects with Yunus Emre and to touch the truth with Mevlana. As the lost sons of the same nation, we can flow towards unity in Fuzuli’s water ode. With Mevlana, we can learn to touch the truth again and again. As the lost sons of the same nation, we can flow towards unity in Fuzuli’s water ode. With Mevlana, we can learn to touch the truth again and again. As the lost sons of the same nation, we can flow towards unity in Fuzuli’s water ode.

It is possible to list these founding texts as follows:

Orkhon Monuments

The first written documents of the Turkish language are texts engraved on stones. These monuments have been accepted as the first Turkish text in which the Turkish name and the name of the Turkish nation are mentioned. Yenisey Tombstones are also called Göktürk Tombstones. Since these monuments are lined up along the Orkhon River, they are called Orkhon Monuments. These stones contain wars, heroism, lessons and advice. The texts are as if they were written today. The games of the Chinese state, where the world is living as a big issue nowadays, take place in the inscriptions in the 13th century as follows: “The word of the Chinese nation was sweet, and the silk fabric was soft. With sweet words, he used to deceive the distant nation with a soft silk cloth. Once he was near and landed, that’s when he thought of bad things. Deceived by your sweet word and soft silk fabric, Turkish nation, you died…”

Epic of Manas

The epic of Manas, the national epic of the Kyrgyz Turks, XI and XII. It is a great epic that was formed in the centuries, fed from the elements of old Turkish epics and has existed until today. The Epic of Manas, as in other epics, not only tells stories, but also carries a great historical and sociological accumulation feature. The Epic of Manas tells the story of all the customs and traditions, beliefs, worldviews, relations with neighboring peoples, tales and understanding of religion of the Kyrgyz. It deals with the enemies of the Kyrgyz, their struggles with them, and the wars. Along with its shamanic features, Islam is one of the focal themes of the epic. The Epic of Manas is known as the greatest epic in the world, especially in terms of its volume and length. However, the focus is always Manas’ struggle to liberate the Turks.

Kutadgu Bilig / Yusuf Has Hacib

Kutadgu Bilig (1070), written by Yusuf Has Hacib a year before the Battle of Manzikert in 1071, one of the turning points in the history of the Turks, is one of the most important works of Turkish literature, language and culture. In terms of content, the book reflects all the pains of the transition period in which a newly converted society is excited, enthusiastic, and old beliefs and new beliefs coexist. As such, it conveys cultural and social changes. If the writing date of the book is 1070 and the content and form are considered together (especially that period of European literature), it is seen that Kutadgu Bilig is one of the miracle works of not only Turkish literature but also world literature. Although Kutadgu Bilig has a structure for the construction of a state, society and individual intertwined with history, sociology and culture, it is above all a strong literary text. book, individual

Divân-ı Lügâti’t-Türk / Kaşgarlı Mahmud

XI. Divân-ı Lügâti’t-Türk, which was written in Arabic as a dictionary of Turkish, aims to introduce the characteristics of Turkish to Arabs and Muslims. Kaşgarlı Mahmud states that he wrote his book so that it would be known that the Turkish language and the Arabic language went together. Divân-ı Lügâti’t-Türk is the most precious treasure of Turkish vocabulary. The book looks like a unique Turkish memory with its customs and traditions, folklore, scientific explanations and sayings.

Kaşgarlı Mahmut talks about a hadith he heard at the beginning of the book and interprets it as follows: “Learn the language of the Turks, because their reign will be long.’ If this hadith is sound, learning Turkish is a religious obligation. If it is not authentic, Ma’rifat requires it.” The work that the Turkish world will refer to as the first source in order to get closer to each other in language should be Divân-ı Lügâti’t-Türk.

Atabetü’l Hakayık / Ahmet Edip Yukneki

Ahmet Edip Yukneki’s Atabetü’l Hakayık (The Threshold of Reality) is considered one of the most important works of Turkish literature after Kutadgu Bilig and Divân-ı Lügâti’t-Türk. It is a book of wisdom written in aruz prosody. The book on the good, the bad, the ignorance, the tongue, and the arrogance is written to give moral counsel. It is a book on moral principles of society, supported by verses and hadiths. Written in Hakaniye Turkish, the book describes the ways to be moral, the benefits of knowledge, and the harms of being arrogant. Ahmet Edip is a very popular personality, especially among Turks, and the effect of the book on Turks is extraordinary.

Divan-i Hikmet / Ahmet Yesevi

The book, which was composed in verse pieces in a clear and simple Turkish that the public can understand, is another important book of the Turks. It is known that Ahmet Yesevi recited this poem and its wisdoms medicinally and did not become a book while he was alive. Later, with the mixing of other wisdoms, a somewhat anonymous book emerged. The book, written in the Hakaniye Dialect of Karakhanid Turkish, is a didactic work. The book contains religious and moral advice. With this book, Ahmet Yesevi laid the foundations of mysticism that would later spread to Anatolia. Although Arabic and Persian were the languages ​​of literature in his own time, Ahmet Yesevi wrote his work in Turkish and made a great contribution to making Turkish a literary language.

Dede Korkut Stories

Dede Korkut Stories are among the most important written literary sources of the Turks, who started in Asia and got richer and developed in Anatolia. Dede Korkut Stories are not only literary, but also sociological, historically valuable and unique texts. Because the life of the people of that period, their view of events and their customs are included in these texts. In this sense, it reflects a perception of culture, literature and civilization. Although they are fictionalized as a literary text, the cultural accumulation, perception of life, spirituality, places, words and perspectives of the Oghuzs are interspersed in the stories as valuable documents. Thus, the spirit, spiritual values, traditions of the Oghuz Turks of the period are revealed through poetic stories. While a situation is being told in the stories, a “Turkish model” is constructed in a clear and understandable Turkish.

Politics / Nizamülmülk

Nizamü’l Mülk (1018-1092), as the vizier of the Seljuk sultans Alparslan and Melikşah, had a say in the state administration for thirty years and influenced the decisions of the sultans with his views. Written upon Melikşah’s request for a comprehensive report on the state administration, the Political Name is a work that preserves its importance even today.

Heft Peyker / Genceli Nizami

Genceli Nizami, considered one of the founders of the Mesnevi style, is one of the greatest poets and storytellers of the East. He influenced the great writers and thinkers Mevlânâ, Hâfız, Sadî, Fuzûlî, Molla Câmî, who produced similar works after him, and became one of the initiators of the hamse genre by carrying the great epic narrative forward on the path of Firdevsi. In his famous hamse, there are five masnavis named Mahzenü’l-Esrâr, Hüsrev and Şirin, Leyla and Mecnun, İskendernâme and Heft Peyker. Innovative, giving importance to fiction, Genceli Nizami has always put love at the center of his narratives. He talked about love from heroic narratives and glorified love in all his narratives. In addition to this thematic approach, he was innovative in form, laid the foundations of the “mesnevi” genre, which is the combination of poetry and story, and created all Eastern literature, especially in the 15th century.

Mesnevi / Mevlana

Mesnevi is one of the exceptional works produced by this land, which has deeply affected our cultural life, art and literature, inspired many writers, artists and poets since it was written. The masnavi reflected the feelings and thoughts of our people, carried a spirit of spirit that permeated all ages, and was therefore engraved in their hearts and memories. Turkish art and literature have been nourished by it for centuries, and it has become a work that is read not only in these lands but also all over the world. Besides its religious, sociological and cultural value, Mesnevi is also a great literary work. Besides being a great sage, sufi and poet, Mevlana is also a great “story teller”. He encapsulated and immortalized the secrets of the world of the heart, the great adventure of humanity, with the language of stories in Mesnevi. He gave great importance to the story, noticed its subtleties and exhibited brilliant examples of how the truth would shine there. The lights of truth in his stories continue to illuminate today.

Divan / Yunus Emre

Yunus Emre is one of the founding names of Turkish literature. Yunus Emre writes in Turkish as opposed to Mevlana’s Persian and Hacı Bektaşi Veli’s Arabic works. He has the biggest share in the survival of Anatolian Turkish until today. He is a master user of understandable, deep, simple expression. Yunus Emre, who uses Turkish perfectly, is one of the inaccessible geniuses of poetry. Even after 700 years, his poems are still new and impressive as if they were written yesterday. His Divan is a masterpiece. Yunus Emre’s encompassing love for humanity is an indication of how deeply he understands Islam. His lively, enthusiastic, ever-fresh poems still impress people of all ages and cultures from all generations. Literature protects the language, enriches it, accumulates it, and transfers it to the future more powerfully. Italians refer to Dante in terms of language, Iranians to Ferdowsi, The Greeks owe much to Homer. We Turks owe a lot to Yunus Emre for the current state of our Turkish.

Divan / Fuzuli

Fuzûlî is a great poet and scientist who has exhibited the beauty and richness of Turkish in his works. With his ingenious poems, he pointed to good and evil, vice and virtue. Turkish turns into a powerful expression, harmony, lyricism and beauty. While living, Fuzûlî worked for the cultural unity of the Turkish world, wrote timeless and timeless poems in Turkish, and left monumental works behind. With his Fuzuli Turkish, he succeeded in creating a language, a common feeling and a common spirit in Central Asia, Caucasus and Anatolia. Fuzuli can serve an important function for the unity of Turkish literature, culture and peoples today and in the future.

Garibname / Âşık Paşa

One of the most important masnavis of Turkish literature, written in Anatolian Turkish in 1330, is Âşık Paşa’s Garibnâme. Garibnâme is one of the important works of Turkish literature, which has influenced many writers who came after it with its language attitude, the way the subjects are handled and its content. Âşık Pasha dealt with the subjects he determined from one to ten in his work, mostly in the style of advice, with anecdotes, examples and parables within the circle of wisdom and example. He exhibited the personality of a trailblazing, pioneering writer who showed the Anatolian people the way out in the chaos of the Âşık Pasha period, and firstly, he based mystical love around the idea of ​​unity. Âşık Pasha, while explaining why he wrote the book in Turkish, not in Arabic and Persian, which was the common understanding of the period, in the introduction to Garibname, considering the large section of people who do not know Arabic,

Ali Şîr Nevâî

Another important torch of Turkish is Ali Şîr Nevâî. XV. Ali Şîr Nevâî, who was a close friend of Sultan Hüseyin Baykara, the Turkish ruler of the Turkestan region in the 19th century, not only studied at the literary level but also theoretically, in order to make Turkish a language of art, he compared Persian and Turkish in his work called Muhakemetü’l-Lugateyn. Ali Şîr Nevâî, an artist with a high Turkish consciousness, became an example for the writers who came after him and served a leading role. Ali Şîr Nevâî, who is also a statesman, is important in many ways to defend the supremacy of Turkish. Ali Şîr Nevâî followed the path of his contemporary Abdurrahman Câmî, but he always wrote in Turkish, not Persian like him.

Travel Book / Evliya Celebi

Evliyâ Çelebi, who lived between 1611 and 1685, traveled from Central Europe to the Balkans, from the Crimea to Iran, from the Arabian Peninsula to North Africa for fifty years. By compiling and recording all his stories, he created one of the most important works of not only our region but also world literature. Evliyâ Çelebi displayed a “storyteller” approach while conveying all of his beliefs, tales, legends, legends, human relations, traditions, arts and cultures, as well as the geographical and historical characteristics of the places he visited. In this sense, Seyahatname is not only a geography, history, sociology, travel guide book, but also a magnificent collection of stories from 400 years ago, a big story chest. History geography,

Mevlit / Suleyman Celebi

Mevlit, one of the masterpieces of Turkish literature, written by Süleyman Çelebi (1351-1422) and whose real name is Vesiletü’n-Necât, is in masnavi format. Mevlit is one of the most read and loved masnavi works for centuries. It was written in a very simple Turkish for its period. The literary value of this mawlid, which is written in masnavi verse, is also high. The work, which describes the high value of the Prophet in the sight of Allah, has been loved and protected in Anatolia until today. Mevlits are literary works written to be read on the birthdays of the Prophet.

Safahat / Mehmet Akif Ersoy

Mehmet Âkif Ersoy is one of the founding pioneers of our civilization. One of the common aspects of the founding pioneers is that they lived in the most critical periods of their nation, in the most daunted, defeated and hopeless periods, and showed the way out, the way out, and clear thinking from this critical process. On the other hand, they play an active role in the struggle for liberation and purification, and they feel responsible and responsible in the historical process. In this sense, it is a struggle that rebels, organizes, changes and corrects.

At a time when the society is experiencing its moments of entrapment, they instill hope, spiritual strength and resistance into the society, and they are the torches of the news. Another common feature is that they are not pure thinkers but artists. In addition, the inseparability of the arts and ideas of the founding pioneers is another common denominator; In these, art and thought are intertwined and fused into each other. For this reason, these names were looked upon as “savior spirit”, “rescue stance” and finally “rescue exit” and were presented as a model for the next generations. It is possible to see all these characteristics of the founding pioneers in Âkif and Safahat.

Because of all this accumulation, the foundation between the brothers is solid, it does not collapse even if years intervene. We can only re-establish our ties with this geography through culture and art. As literary writers, we should write great poems, great stories, great novels and make great films. Literature transcends borders, conquers hearts. We can find a way to reach each other from this accumulation of centuries, from poems, novels and stories.

These areas should be our new bridge, we should engage in mutual translation movements, continue cooperation, and increase bridges. It should not be forgotten that the story of the Turk will never end, despite all these darkness and light, ups and downs, it will continue to be told from age to age, from generation to generation, and will echo in Turkish cities forever. Because it is the greatest story ever written and ever written.


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