Map shows which areas the term ‘land of Turks’ referred to historically.
- Western Tourkia was a term given to Hungarians by the Byzantines
- Eastern Tourkia was a term given to Khazars by the Byzantines
- Turcarum Imperium ‘Turkish Empire’ (and other variants), although not used by Ottomans, it was given by the Europeans. They were also referred to Turkey from late 19th centuries.
- Turkey, of course Al-Dawlat al-Turkiyya was a term given at that time to Mamluks, meaning state of Turks or it can be said ‘Turkey’ as well in modern terminology, because of the ruling class being Turkic.
- The term Turkestan comes from Persian sources,
- Tujue from Chinese and
- Türük el (land of Turks) can be found in Bilge Khagan inscriptions