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Wisdom of Biruni (973-1048)

Abū Rayḥān Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad al-Bīrūnī (September 15, 973 – December 13, 1048) was a Turkish polymath, scientist, physicist, anthropologist, psychologist, astronomer, chemist, critic of alchemy and astrology, encyclopedist, historian, geographer, traveller, geodesist, geologist, pharmacist, philosopher, theologian, scholar and teacher, and he contributed greatly to all of these fields.

Biruni (973-1043) born in Khwarezm / Uzbekistan.

Anthropology, Astronomy, Chemistry, Comparative Sociology,
Geodesy, History, Geography, Natural Sciences, Mathematics,
in Medicine, Philosophy, Pharmacology, Physics, Psychology
known for his work.

Abu Reyhan El Biruni (973–1048). (Uzbekistan) Suburb of Kas /Birun 973, Rey 955 (?), Gilan 995, Kas 997, Bukhara, Jürcan 999, Harizm (Kas and Gürgenc) 1003, Ghazni 1017-1050, Kabul, Kashmir and probably Thanesar via Punjab Travel to India (accompanying Mahmud of Ghazni’s conquests) to : Universal genius, astronomer and geographer (hermeneutical) Indologist and philosopher. Hezarfen (very knowledgeable) from Khwarezm, who first came to the fore in the palace of the Khwarazm shahs in Ürgenç (today in the borders of Turkmenistan) and then in the Palace of Mahmud of Ghazni in Afghanistan. His work in astronomy, geodesy, history and the social sciences has made him the greatest scientific thinker of the period between Antiquity and the European Renaissance. Astronomy, Mathematics, Natural Sciences, Geography and History. Biruni traveled from Ghazni to Hind between 1017 and 1030. In 1030 he published the book of Hind.

 “I have begun with Geometry and proceeded to Arithmetic and the Science of Numbers, then to the structure of the Universe and finally to Judicial Astrology, for no one who is worthy of the style and title of Astrologer who is not thoroughly conversant with these for sciences.”



According to the Hindu philosophers, liberation is common to all castes and to the whole human race, if their intention of obtaining it is perfect. This view is based on the saying of Vyâsa: “Learn to know the twenty-five things (I. e. The twenty-five elements of existence) thoroughly. Then you may follow whatever religion you like; you will no doubt be liberated.” Alberuni’s India



Some people maintain that time consists of cycles, at the end of which all created beings perish, whilst they grow at their beginning; that each such cycle has a special Adam and Eve of its own, and that the chronology of this cycle depends upon them. Other people, again, maintain that in each cycle a special Adam and Eve exist for each country in particular, and that hence the difference of human structure, nature, and language is to be derived. Other people, besides, hold this foolish persuasion, viz that time has no terminus a quo at all. Now, personal observation alone, and conclusions inferred therefrom, do not prove a long duration of the human life, and the huge size of human bodies, and what else has been related to be beyond the limits of possibility. For similar matters appear in the course of time in manifold shapes. There are certain things which are bound to certain times, within which they turn round In a certain order, and which undergo transformations as long as there is a possibility of their existing. If they, now, are not observed as long as they are in existence, people think them to be improbable, and hasten to reject them as altogether impossible.


 “The great differences between ideas and beliefs are evidence of the vitality of the world.”


 “Diversity in people’s thoughts and beliefs is the source of development and well-being in the world.”


 “Maester Abu’s-Sahl (may Allah have mercy), when I saw those works revisited and the issue was exactly as I stated, he encouraged me to write what I know about Indians. This information can be useful to those who want to reject the Indians or become a capital for those who want to live with them.

I started this job, obeying the master’s order. While writing what I know, I avoided slander the enemy. Also, as a Muslim, I did not hesitate to quote long quotations from Indian texts at points that I thought would contribute to enlighten a subject. Even if the content of some of the quotations is clearly seen as blasphemy and may be rejected by the passengers of the right path (Muslims), we can only say, “This is the belief of the Indians and they are most worthy of defending this belief.



“We have here given an account of these things in order that the reader may learn by the comparative treatment of the subject how much superior the institutions of Islam are, and how more plainly this contrast brings out all customs and usages, differing from those of Islam, in their essential foulness.”


 “Verifying All That the Indians Recount, the Reasonable and the Unreasonable”or “The book confirming what pertains to India, whether rational or despicable”)
Further Quotes
Once a sage asked why scholars always flock to the doors of the rich, whilst the rich are not inclined to call at the doors of scholars. “The scholars” he answered, “are well aware of the use of money, but the rich are ignorant of the nobility of science”.
Quoted in: A.L. Mackay Dictionary of Scientific Quotations (London 1994).
You well know … for which reason I began searching for a number of demonstrations proving a statement due to the ancient Greeks … and which passion I felt for the subject … so that you reproached me my preoccupation with these chapters of geometry, not knowing the true essence of these subjects, which consists precisely in going in each matter beyond what is necessary. … Whatever way he [the geometer] may go, through exercise will he be lifted from the physical to the divine teachings, which are little accessible because of the difficulty to understand their meaning … and because the circumstance that not everybody is able to have a conception of them, especially not the one who turns away from the art of demonstration. Book on the Finding of Chords.
I have seen the astrolabe called Zuraqi invented by Abu Sa’id Sijzi. I liked it very much and praised him a great deal, as it is based on the idea entertained by some to the effect that the motion we see is due to the Earth’s movement and not to that of the sky. By my life, it is a problem difficult of solution and refutation. […] For it is the same whether you take it that the Earth is in motion or the sky. For, in both cases, it does not affect the Astronomical Science. It is just for the physicist to see if it is possible to refute it. Quoted in Hossein Nasr, An Introduction to Islamic Cosmological Doctrines (1993), p. 135.
“Conscience is the voice of God within us”
Twenty-two years after the death of Harezmi
Biruni (973-1048), our greatest examining thinker
and our first traveler, spanning India
He expressed freedom of conscience 1000 years ago as follows;
“The great difference between thoughts and beliefs
separations are proof of the life of the world.”
• “People’s ideas and approaches are diverse.
and the development of the world happen with the “diversity” of these approaches.”
• “I use my works, first of all, for my own self.
which is the closest to oneself – in the second degree;
for ours who love virtue and follow the path of virtue
I wrote it for people like you.”
• “Knowledge was like the piece of meat left for the birds on the mat”
• “I did what each person has to do in his own work.
Grateful for the achievements of previous,
to meet their mistakes without fearing,
to straighten what appears to him to be real,
entrust it to the next generation.”
• “The reason why I deal with science is Surah Ali Imran
verse 191 in The Quran”
• “People are unhappy because of three things;
1. Be jealous of what others have
to stitch.
2. Seeing oneself superior to other people in all aspects.
3. To fall into superstitions such as fortune telling and bad luck.”
• “I did what every person should do:
greet their achievements with gratitude,
to right their wrongs without fear,
entrusting what appears to be true to me to the next.”


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